Many Africa countries that had been colonised by European countries got independence in the fifties and sixties.
Who were the founding presidents by country?
By 1963 the emerging Africa leaders were inspired enough by the new gained freedom to start talking Pan-Africanism. The states of Africa sought through a political collective a means of preserving and consolidating their independence and pursuing the ideals of African unity. Unfortunately, two rival camps emerged with opposing views about how these goals could best be achieved. The Casablanca Group, led by President Kwame Nkrumah (1909–1972) of Ghana, backed radical calls for political integration and the creation of a supranational body. The moderate Monrovia Group, led by Emperor Haile Selassie (1892–1975) of Ethiopia, advocated a loose association of sovereign states that allowed for political cooperation at the intergovernmental level. The latter view prevailed. The OAU was therefore based on the “sovereign equality of all Member States,” as stated in its charter.
|Country||Independence Date||Prior ruling country|
|Liberia, Republic of||July 26, 1847||–|
|South Africa, Republic of||May 31, 1910||Britain|
|Egypt, Arab Republic of||Feb. 28, 1922||Britain|
|Ethiopia, People’s Democratic Republic of||May 5, 1941||Italy|
|Libya (Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya)||Dec. 24, 1951||Britain|
|Sudan, Democratic Republic of||Jan. 1, 1956||Britain/Egypt|
|Morocco, Kingdom of||March 2, 1956||France|
|Tunisia, Republic of||March 20, 1956||France|
|Morocco (Spanish Northern Zone, Marruecos)||April 7, 1956||Spain|
|Morocco (International Zone, Tangiers)||Oct. 29, 1956||–|
|Ghana, Republic of||March 6, 1957||Britain|
|Morocco (Spanish Southern Zone, Marruecos)||April 27, 1958||Spain|
|Guinea, Republic of||Oct. 2, 1958||France|
|Cameroon, Republic of||Jan. 1 1960||France|
|Senegal, Republic of||April 4, 1960||France|
|Togo, Republic of||April 27, 1960||France|
|Mali, Republic of||Sept. 22, 1960||France|
|Madagascar, Democratic Republic of||June 26, 1960||France|
|Congo (Kinshasa), Democratic Republic of the||June 30, 1960||Belgium|
|Somalia, Democratic Republic of||July 1, 1960||Britain|
|Benin, Republic of||Aug. 1, 1960||France|
|Niger, Republic of||Aug. 3, 1960||France|
|Burkina Faso, Popular Democratic Republic of||Aug. 5, 1960||France|
|Côte d’Ivoire, Republic of (Ivory Coast)||Aug. 7, 1960||France|
|Chad, Republic of||Aug. 11, 1960||France|
|Central African Republic||Aug. 13, 1960||France|
|Congo (Brazzaville), Republic of the||Aug. 15, 1960||France|
|Gabon, Republic of||Aug. 16, 1960||France|
|Nigeria, Federal Republic of||Oct. 1, 1960||Britain|
|Mauritania, Islamic Republic of||Nov. 28, 1960||France|
|Sierra Leone, Republic of||Apr. 27, 1961||Britain|
|Nigeria (British Cameroon North)||June 1, 1961||Britain|
|Cameroon(British Cameroon South)||Oct. 1, 1961||Britain|
|Tanzania, United Republic of||Dec. 9, 1961||Britain|
|Burundi, Republic of||July 1, 1962||Belgium|
|Rwanda, Republic of||July 1, 1962||Belgium|
|Algeria, Democratic and Popular Republic of||July 3, 1962||France|
|Uganda, Republic of||Oct. 9, 1962||Britain|
|Kenya, Republic of||Dec. 12, 1963||Britain|
|Malawi, Republic of||July 6, 1964||Britain|
|Zambia, Republic of||Oct. 24, 1964||Britain|
|Gambia, Republic of The||Feb. 18, 1965||Britain|
|Botswana, Republic of||Sept. 30, 1966||Britain|
|Lesotho, Kingdom of||Oct. 4, 1966||Britain|
|Mauritius, State of||March 12, 1968||Britain|
|Swaziland, Kingdom of||Sept. 6, 1968||Britain|
|Equatorial Guinea, Republic of||Oct. 12, 1968||Spain|
|Morocco (Ifni)||June 30, 1969||Spain|
|Guinea-Bissau, Republic of||Sept. 24, 1973 (alt. Sept. 10, 1974)||Portugal|
|Mozambique, Republic of||June 25. 1975||Portugal|
|Cape Verde, Republic of||July 5, 1975||Portugal|
|Comoros, Federal Islamic Republic of the||July 6, 1975||France|
|São Tomé and Principe, Democratic Republic of||July 12, 1975||Portugal|
|Angola, People’s Republic of||Nov. 11, 1975||Portugal|
|Western Sahara||Feb. 28, 1976||Spain|
|Seychelles, Republic of||June 29, 1976||Britain|
|Djibouti, Republic of||June 27, 1977||France|
|Zimbabwe, Republic of||April 18, 1980||Britain|
|Namibia, Republic of||March 21, 1990||South Africa|
|Eritrea, State of||May 24, 1993||Ethiopia|
|South Sudan, Republic of||July 9, 2011||Republic of the Sudan|
- Ethiopia is usually considered to have never been colonized, but following the invasion by Italy in 1935-36 Italian settlers arrived. Emperor Haile Selassie was deposed and went into exile in the UK. He regained his throne on 5 May 1941 when he re-entered Addis Ababa with his troops. Italian resistance was not completely overcome until 27th November 1941.
- Guinea-Bissau made a Unilateral Declaration of Independence on Sept. 24, 1973, now considered as Independence Day. However, independence was only recognized by Portugal on 10 September 1974 as a result of the Algiers Accord of Aug. 26, 1974.
- Western Sahara was immediately seized by Morocco, a move contested by Polisario (Popular Front for the Liberation of the Saguia el Hamra and Rio del Oro).
African Countries and their Independence Days.
AD, European countries scrambled for and partitioned Africa. This continued until around 1905, by which time all the lands and resources of the continent of Africa had been completely divided and colonized by European countries. The only country that couldn’t be colonized due to strong resistance by the indegines was Ethiopia, and Liberia which was a place for freed slaves from the Americas.In the 17th century
The struggle for independence started after world war II. This led to the independence of the Union of South Africa in 1931 through negatiations with the British empire and Libya in 1951 from Italy; followed by others in the late 1950s. The road to African independence was very hard and tortuous often through bloody fights, revolts and assasinations. For example; Britain unilatearlly granted “The Kingdom of Egypt” independence on Feb. 22nd 1922 after a series of revolts, but continued to interfere in government. More violent revolts led to the signing of the Anglo-Egyptian treaty in 1936 and a coupe detat tagged Egyptian Revolution in 1952 finally culminated in the Egyptian Republic declaration of June 18th; 1953. The peak year for independence came in 1960 when about 17 countries gained independence. These independence days are now celebrated as national day holidays in most countries of Africa.
|COUNTRY||INDEPENDENCE DAY||COLONIAL NAME||COLONIAL RULERS|
|Algeria||July 5th, 1962||France|
|Angola||November 11th; 1975||Portugal|
|Benin||August 1st; 1960||French|
|Botswana||September 30th, 1966||Britain|
|Burkina Faso||August 5; 1960||France|
|Burundi||July 1st; 1962||Belgium|
|Cameroon||January 1st; 1960||French-administered UN trusteeship|
|Cape Verde||July 5th; 1975||Portugal|
|C.A.R||August 13th; 1960||France|
|Chad||August 11th, 1960||France|
|Comoros||July 6th; 1975||France|
|Congo||August 15th; 1960||France|
|Congo DR||June 30th; 1960||Belgium|
|Cote d’Ivoire||August 7th; 1960||France|
|Djibouti||June 27th; 1977||France|
|Egypt||February 28th, 1922||Britain|
|Eq Guinea||October 12; 1968||Spain|
|Eritrea||May 24th; 1993||Ethiopia|
|Ethiopia||over 2000 years,
Kingdom of Aksum
|Gabon||August 17th; 1960||France|
|Gambia||February 18th; 1965||Britain|
|Ghana||6 March 1957||Gold Coast||Britain|
|Guinea||October 2nd; 1958||France|
|Guinea Bissau||10 September 1974
24 September 1973
|Kenya||December 12th, 1963||Britain|
|Lesotho||October 4th; 1966||Britain|
|Liberia||July 26th; 1847||American colonization Society|
|Libya||December 24; 1951||Italy|
|Madagascar||June 26th; 1960||France|
|Malawi||July 6th; 1964||Britain|
|Mali||September 22nd; 1960||France|
|Mauritania||November 28th; 1960||France|
|Mauritius||March 12th, 1968||Britain|
|Morocco||March 2nd; 1956||France|
|Mozambique||June 25th; 1975||Portugal|
|Namibia||March 21st; 1990||South African mandate|
|Niger||August 3rd; 1960||France|
|Nigeria||October 1st, 1960||Britain|
|Rwanda||July 1st; 1962||Belgium administered UN trusteeship|
|SaoTomePrincipe||July 12th; 1975||Portugal|
|Senegal||April 4th; 1960||France|
|Seychelles||June 29th; 1976||Britain|
|Sierra Leone||April 27th; 1961||Britain|
|Somalia||July 1st; 1960||British Somaliland
|South Africa||11 December 1931,
April 1994(end of apatheid)
|Union of South Africa||Britain|
|Sudan||January 1st; 1956||Egypt, Britain|
|Swaziland||September 6th; 1968||Britain|
|Tanzania||April 26th, 1964||Britain|
|Togo||April 27th; 1960||French administered UN trusteeship|
|Tunisia||March 20th; 1956||France|
|Uganda||October 9th; 1962||Britain|
|Zambia||October 24th; 1964||Britain|
|Zimbabwe||April 18th; 1980||Britain|
1960 in Africa
Known as the Year of Africa, 1960 saw 17 African countries declare independence among other events.
- Mau Mau Uprising is officially over in Kenya.
- 9–11 January – Aswan High Dam construction begins in Egypt.
- 21 January – A mine collapses at Coalbrook, South Africa, killing 437.
- 24 January – A major insurrection occurs in Algiers against French colonial policy.
- 3 February – Harold Macmillan‘s Wind of Change speech is made in Cape Town, South Africa. It signalled the end of the British Empire.
- 10 February – A conference about the independence of the Belgian Congo begins in Brussels.
- 29 February–1 March – The 5.7 Mw Agadir earthquake shakes coastal Morocco with a maximum perceived intensity of X (Extreme), destroying Agadir, and leaving 12,000 dead and another 12,000 injured.
- 21 March – The Sharpeville massacre in South Africa kills more than 69 people, wounds 300.
- 16 April – Gunman David Pratt attacks South African Prime Minister Henrik Verwoerd in Johannesburg, wounding him seriously.
- 27 April – Togo declares independence with Sylvanus Olympio.
- 14 May – The Kenya African Democratic Union Party is founded in Kenya, when 3 political parties join forces.
- 20 June – The Mali Federation declares independence with Modibo Keita as leader and Dakar as capital.
- 26 June – Madagascar declares independence with Philibert Tsiranana as President.
- 26 June – Somaliland declares independence with Mohamed Haji Ibrahim Egal as President and Hargeisa as capital.
- 30 June – Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville) (now Democratic Republic of the Congo) declares independence with Joseph Kasa-Vubu as President.
- 1 July – Somalia declares independence, with Aden Abdullah Osman Daar as President.
- 1 July – Ghana becomes a Republic and Kwame Nkrumah becomes its first President as Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom ceases to be the Head of state.
- 11 July- Moise Tshombe declares the Congolese province of Katanga independent; he receives Belgian help.
- 1 August – Dahomey (now Benin) declares independence, with Hubert Maga as President.
- 3 August – Niger declares independence, with Hamani Diori as President.
- 5 August – Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso) declares independence, with Maurice Yaméogo as President.
- 6 August – In the Republic of the Congo (Leopoldville), Albert Kalonji declares the independence of the Autonomous State of South Kasai.
- 7 August – Côte d’Ivoire declares independence, with Félix Houphouët-Boigny as President.
- 11 August – Chad declares independence, with François Tombalbaye as President.
- 13 August – Central African Republic declares independence, with David Dacko as President.
- 15 August – Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville) declares independence, with Fulbert Youlou as President.
- 17 August – Gabon declares independence, with Léon M’ba as President.
- 20 August – Senegal leaves the Mali Federation, creating Senegal.
- 5 September – Congo president Joseph Kasavubu fires Patrice Lumumba‘s government and places him under house arrest.
- 14 September – Colonel Joseph Mobutu takes power in Congo (Leopoldville) in a military coup.
- 20 September – Dahomey, Upper Volta, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo (Leopoldville), Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville), Côte d’Ivoire, Gabon, Madagascar, Niger, Somalia, Togo, Mali and Senegal obtain membership in the United Nations.
- 22 September – Mali declares independence from the Mali federation.
- 1 October – Nigeria declares independence, with Nnamdi Azikiwe as President.
- 5 October – White South Africans vote to make the country a republic.
- 7 October – Nigeria obtains membership in the United Nations.
- 9 December – French President Charles de Gaulle’s visit to Algeria is marked by bloody riots by European and Muslim mobs in Algeria’s largest cities, killing 127 people.
- 13 December – While Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia visits Brazil, his Imperial Bodyguard revolts unsuccessfully against his rule. The rebels proclaim the emperor’s son, Crown Prince Asfa Wossen, as Emperor.
- 14 December – Antoine Gizenga proclaims in Stanleyville, Congo, that he has assumed the premiership.
- 17 December – Troops loyal to Haile Selassie I in Ethiopia suppress the revolt that began 13 December, giving power back to their leader upon his return from Brazil. Haile Selassie absolves his son of any guilt.
Continental population in 1960
- Africa: 277,398,000