How to deal with fleas on outdoor dogs.

When your dog starts to scratch frequently and or you notice fleas on it, then the scratching is most likely due to the fleas. You will want to deal with them. To eradicate fleas on your pet, it is no use just spraying the dog. You need to deal with the entire lifecycle of the pest. The lifecycle of fleas can last a few days but can as well take years depending on the environmental conditions throughout the life stages. Kill the pest at all stages adult, eggs, larva, pupa.

The life cycle of flea
The lifecycle of fleas


This is the stage when fleas are most vulnerable. It is also when they are most destructive. Adult fleas are ready to emerge from pupa in about four days, but will not emerge from the cocoon until there is a clear presence of a host.  They can stay in this state for months. They detect the presence of a host by sensing movement, breathing or body heat.  Within a few hours of emerging from the cocoon, they start feeding and within a day will mate and begin laying eggs.

Therefore the day you spray or wash the dog with acaricide, also spray the kennel or liar. In fact, spray the entire compound especially dusty areas. This way you have killed the adults and larvae.

Repeat the process three to five days later. Why?


The eggs are not affected by acaricides or insecticides. Adult fleas will mate and lay eggs in the fur of the host, the dusty surroundings and cracks. These eggs will hatch in one to ten days depending on environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity. Therefore re-treating the dog(pet) within this period will kill new larvae and adults before they mate and reproduce.


As seen above eggs will hatch into larvae in one to ten days. The larvae feed and take in air. As such they are susceptible to acaricide.  They live on blood and flea faeces (poop; also called “flea dirt”). They can be killed by both acaricide and insecticide.

Therefore it is important to respray the dog’s liers, kennels and compound 3 to five days after the first round in order to kill the new larvae that were not affected by the first round.


Within 5-20 days of feeding on flea dirt, the larvae will spin a cocoon, and enter the pupa stage. The cocoon protects pupa from environmental conditions, insecticides and acaricides. The pupae remain immobile for several days or weeks until adult fleas are ready to emerge.

They are not affected by acaricides and insecticides.

Repeating the five-day spraying cycle three to four times will rid your pets of fleas.

In other words, treat the dog twice a week for three weeks.


Searching online for someone using a picture

This is called a reverse image search and it is quite easy. This is how to search for someone’s cyber footprint using an image.
1. Go to
2. click on the camera icon
3. upload the image of somone or insert the URL for a photo
4. hit search
5. If you are using the Chrome browser, you can right-click on a picture and then click “Search Google for an image,”
6. The matching results are displayed in a new tab.

Are unilateral changes to an employment contract legal?

Black’s Law Dictionary (9th Edition) defines constructive dismissal as:

“A termination of employment brought about by the employer making the employee’s working conditions so intolerable that the employee feels compelled to leave”
It’s expected that terms and conditions of employment may change from time to time and, therefore, Section 10(5) of the Employment Act, 2007 provides that: –

“Where any matter stipulated in subsection (1) [the employment contract] changes, the employer shall, in consultation with the employee, revise the contract to reflect the change and notify the employee of the change in writing.”

A decision taken ‘in consultation with’ another is one that’s taken after a discussion with the other party about the thing that’s being decided.

If there’s trade union involved, the Recognition Agreement and Collective Bargaining Agreement will no doubt outline the procedure of making changes to the contractual terms.

This is not usually a problem if the proposed change is to the employee’s benefit; the problem arises where the proposed change is to the employee’s detriment; in such a case, the employer should not only consult but should also get the consent of the employee, if this is not done the results could be any of the following: –


Constructive dismissal

A constructive termination arises where the employer, in the absence of any justifiable reasons for dismissal, proceeds to “construct” circumstances that will bring about a dismissal. A unilateral change to a contract may amount to a constructive dismissal. For the Court to hold that a constructive dismissal has occurred, the following must be established by the employee: –

That the employer made a fundamental change to the contract of employment;
That such change was unilateral;
That the situation was so intolerable that the employee was unable to continue working;
That the employee would have continued working had the employer not created the intolerable work environment; and
That the employee resigned because he did not believe the employer would abandon the pattern of creating an unacceptable work environment.
See: –

Henry Ochido v NGO Co-ordination Board (Transferring an employee to another town without prior consultation)
Elizabeth Kwamboka Khaemba v BoG Cardinal Otunga High School Mosocho & 2 others (Altering an employee’s job description without consultation)
Anthony Mkala Chitavi v Malindi Water & Sewerage Company Ltd

No effect

The Court may ignore the change/amendment and uphold the earlier contractual terms. See: –

Joseph Maina Theuri v Gitonga Kabugi & 3 others where the court declined to uphold disciplinary rules and procedures that were not notified to the employee.

Stay of implementation

The court may stay the implementation of the amendment until consultations are undertaken. See: –

Kenya Union of Commercial Food and Allied Workers vs Tusker Mattresses Limited; and
Kenya Local Government Workers Union vs Nyahururu Water & Sanitation Company Ltd
Other cases you may want to read through on the issue of changes to the contract: –

Kenya County Government Workers Union v Kisumu County Government & 95 others; and
Kepha Thuo Magua v Board of Governors Satima Secondary School
All cases can be accessed at

Mode of notification

The notification of the change may be done through a simple letter to the employee outlining the change or through an addendum to the contract. In either case, the employee should sign and retain a copy of the amendment and the signed acknowledgment should be kept in the employer’s records.


An employer should consult an employee prior to effecting changes to agreed terms and conditions of employment;
Consultation is mandatory, consent is not;
A change that is of a fundamental nature, if not consented to, may lead to a finding that an employee who resigns as a result of the change, has been constructively dismissed.
Follow us on Twitter for a daily dose of the Employment Laws.